Biological Sciences Major

College of Computer, Mathematical and Natural Sciences
1322 Symons Hall
Phone: 301-405-6892
estaylor@umd.edu
bsci.umd.edu

The Biological Sciences major exposes students to the modern experimental disciplines within biology and prepares them for diverse careers in health care, research, policy, teaching, and academia. Upper level courses are organized into specialization areas, aligned with the major research areas in modern biology ranging from molecular and cellular studies to ecosystem studies. 

Students in the Biological Sciences major will have the following academic components to their curriculum.

  • Basic program and supporting Courses:  47 - 48 credits
  • Advanced Program in one of the following specialization area: 27 credits
    • Cell Biology and Genetics
    • General Biology
    • Microbiology
    • Ecology and Evolution
    • Physiology and Neurobiology
    • Individualized Studies requires permission of Assistant Dean
  • General Education requirements:  27 credits
  • Electives:  18 - 19 credits

Total credits required to graduate: 120

The Biological Sciences major is jointly offered by the Departments of BiologyCell Biology & Molecular Genetics, and Entomology in the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences. The central Biological Sciences Program office in 1322 Symons Hall is staffed by:

Departmental contacts for Biological Sciences are:

  • Undergraduate Director Biology: Dr. Reid Compton, compton@umd.edu
    • BSCI specializations: PHNB, ECEV
  • Undergraduate Director Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics: Dr. Dave Straney, straney@umd.edu
    • BSCI specializations: CEBG, GENB, MICB
  • Undergraduate Director Entomology: Dr. Tammatha O'Brien, tammatha@umd.edu
    • BSCI specialization: GENB
    • Entomology minor

Biological Sciences Program Specializations

All Biological Sciences majors complete a common sequence of introductory and supporting courses referred to as the basic program. In addition, students must complete an advanced program within one of the following specialization areas:      

  • Cell Biology & Genetics (CEBG)
  • Ecology & Evolution (ECEV)
  • General Biology (GENB)
  • Microbiology (MICB)
  • Physiology & Neurobiology (PHNB)
  • Individualized Studies (BIVS)

A complete list of specialization area requirements can be found on our website, bsci.umd.edu. Note that the Individualized Studies specialization (BIVS) requires permission of the Assistant Dean of Undergraduate Academic Programs, and involves an approved proposal to do coursework in the College and in other disciplines. Further questions about Biological Sciences can be directed to the Undergraduate Academic Program Office at 301-405-6892.

Biological Sciences at the University of Maryland at Shady Grove

The Biological Sciences Program at the University of Maryland offers a degree program at Universities at Shady Grove. The Biological Sciences Program at Shady Grove offers the Advanced Program courses normally taken in the junior and senior years. More information is available at: shadygrove.umd.edu/academics/degree-programs/bs-biological-sciences.

Admission to the Major

The Biological Sciences major is a Limited Enrollment Program. Please see the admission requirements and procedures at: lep.umd.edu.

Placement in Courses

Enrollment in BSCI170 & BSCI171 and BSCI160 & BSCI161 requires eligibility to take MATH120 or MATH140, either through direct placement by the Math Placement Exam, or completion of MATH113 or MATH115. Note that students who are ready to take MATH135 will have an eligibility for MATH140, and thus are eligible to enroll in BSCI160 & BSCI161 and BSCI170 & BSCI171.

Students who earn Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate Placement credit which grants equivalency for BSCI170 & BSCI171 and/or BSCI160 & BSCI161 are encouraged not to repeat these courses at UMD, but can continue to courses for which BSCI170 & BSCI171 and/or BSCI160 & BSCI161 satisfy prerequisite requirements.

Program Learning Outcomes

  1. Students should have mastered the critical knowledge at each level in the curriculum that is necessary to move on to the next level in the curriculum.
  2. Students should demonstrate an ability to use and apply quantitative methods, especially: interpretation of graphical or tabular data; expression of physical, chemical, or biological process in mathematical form; solving equations to determine the value of physical, chemical, or biological variables.
  3. Students at the lower level should demonstrate an ability to carry out key experimental techniques used in the chemical and life sciences disciplines.
  4. Students at the lower level should have a basic understanding of how to express questions as a hypothesis, how to design a test of a hypothesis, and how to gather and analyze simple data.
  5. Students at the upper level should be able to integrate and apply a relevant body of basic knowledge to the evaluation of existing scientific studies and to design studies to test specific hypotheses that includes design elements typically found in a specific field of the chemical and life sciences.
  6. Students should effectively communicate in writing the processes of science and the results of scientific inquiry.

Information on BSCI advising can be found at: bsci.umd.edu/advising.

All freshmen and new transfer students will be assigned an advisor from the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences Student Services advising staff. Students will be assigned to a departmental faculty advisor once a basic sequence of courses has been successfully completed. The departmental faculty advisors are coordinated by the following persons for the indicated specialization areas. These coordinating advising offices can be contacted for making appointments with an advisor or for any other information regarding that specialization area.

Specializations: CEBG, GENB, MICB

Department of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics
Undergraduate Office:
1109 Microbiology
Phone: 301-405-2766

Undergraduate Director: Dr. Straney
3122 Microbiology
Phone: 301-405-1622
straney@umd.edu

Specialization: GENB

Department of Entomology
Main Office:
4112 Plant Sciences Building
Phone: 301-405-3911

Undergraduate Director: Dr. O'Brien
4112 Plant Sciences Building
Phone: 301-405-3125
tammatha@umd.edu

Specializations: ECEV and PHNB

Department of Biology
Undergraduate Office:
1204A Biology-Psychology Building
Phone: 301-405-6904
bioundergrad@umd.edu

Undergraduate Director: Dr. Compton
1204F Biology-Psychology Building
Phone: 301-405-6916
compton@umd.edu

Specialization: BIVS, Secondary Education, Science in the Evening

College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences
Undergraduate Academic Programs Office
1322 Symons Hall
Phone: 301-405-6892

Assistant Dean: Dr. Presson
1322 Symons Hall
Phone: 301-405-6892
jpresson@umd.edu

Laboratory research, fieldwork, and internships are valuable co-curricular experiences which add value to a student’s academic experience in CMNS disciplines. We encourage students to pursue one or more of these experiences during their undergraduate studies. Please see the College website for more information about experiential learning for CMNS undergraduates.

Course Title Credits
Basic Program and supporting courses in Biological Sciences
BSCI170
BSCI171
Principles of Molecular & Cellular Biology
and Principles of Molecular & Cellular Biology Laboratory
4
BSCI160
BSCI161
Principles of Ecology and Evolution
and Principles of Ecology and Evolution Lab
4
BSCI207Principles of Biology III - Organismal Biology3
BSCI222Principles of Genetics4
UNIV100The Student in the University 11
Supporting Courses 2
MATH135
MATH136
Discrete Mathematics for Life Sciences
and Calculus for Life Sciences
8
or
MATH140
MATH141
Calculus I
and Calculus II
8
Or
MATH140
MATH135
Calculus I
and Discrete Mathematics for Life Sciences
8
CHEM131
CHEM132
Chemistry I - Fundamentals of General Chemistry
and General Chemistry I Laboratory
4
CHEM231
CHEM232
Organic Chemistry I
and Organic Chemistry Laboratory I
4
CHEM241
CHEM242
Organic Chemistry II
and Organic Chemistry Laboratory II
4
CHEM271
CHEM272
General Chemistry and Energetics
and General Bioanalytical Chemistry Laboratory
4
PHYS131Fundamentals of Physics for Life Sciences I4
or PHYS141 Principles of Physics
PHYS132Fundamentals of Physics for Life Sciences II4
or PHYS142 Principles of Physics
Please see below for details on the Advanced Program requirements for each specialization area.
1

Al students who matriculate at  UMD as Freshman Biological Sciences majors must take UNIV100 or another approved Freshman Seminar course.  See your advisor for details.

2

 MATH140 and MATH141 taken together will fulfill the Mathematics Supporting Courses requirement; however, MATH135 and MATH136 were designed specifically for Biological Sciences majors.  Students who enter the Biological Sciences major after satisfactorily completing MATH140 should take MATH135 instead of MATH141.

Advanced Program Requirements

All Biological Sciences majors must complete an Advanced Program within one of the specialization areas described below.  Students must complete a minimum of 27 credits of Advanced Program study.

For all specialization areas:

  • At least two courses designated as lab at the 300 or 400 level must be taken as part of the Advanced Program.
    • Stand alone lab courses require a C- or better in the pre / co-requisite lecture to count as the upper level Lab requirement
  • Independent study or research credits, including H and L versions, are acceptable up to a maximum of 3 credits overall in the Advanced Program.
  • Multiple semesters in research courses can possibly count for one of the two required lab courses. See your advisor for more details.
  • One credit of Departmental Honors Seminar can count toward the Advanced Program major credits.  Additional Departmental Honors Seminar credits can count as electives toward the 120 credits required for graduation.
  • Special topics courses are approved for specific specialization areas.  See testudo.umd.edu to determine if  a particular special topics course is approved for your specialization area.
  • All specialization areas except General Biology have an Enrichment category. Enrichment allows students to include a maximum of  3 credits from any 300-level or 400-level BSCI, CHEM, or BCHM course in their Advanced Program.  Courses from other departments can be used with permission of advisor. Courses listed in the Advanced Program  can be used if they are not used to satisfy any specific Advance program category. Courses counted as Enrichment do not satisfy the requirement  to take two 300- or 400-level laboratory courses.

Cell Biology & Genetics 0404A

Course Title Credits
Required Courses16
BCHM461Biochemistry I3
BCHM462Biochemistry II3
BSCI330Cell Biology and Physiology (Lab)4
BSCI410Molecular Genetics3
BSCI420Cell Biology Lectures3
CEBG Area courses. One course from the Cell Biology group and one course from the Genetics group must be taken. Other credits can be taken from any group. 8
Cell Biology Courses
BSCI353Principles of Neuroscience3
BSCI404Cell Biology from a Biophysical Perspective3
BSCI406Membranes and Biological Interfaces3
BSCI417Microbial Pathogenesis 13
BSCI422Principles of Immunology 13
BSCI423Immunology Laboratory 12
BSCI430Developmental Biology3
BSCI432Systems View of Cell Biology3
BSCI433Biology of Cancer3
BSCI442Plant Physiology (Lab)4
BSCI443Microbial Physiology 13
BSCI454Neurobiology Laboratory 31
Genetics Courses
BSCI402Genomics of Sensory Systems3
BSCI405Population and Evolutionary Genetics (Lab)3
BSCI406Membranes and Biological Interfaces3
BSCI407Behavioral Genetics3
BSCI411Bioinformatics and Integrated Genomics (Lab)4
BSCI412Microbial Genetics (Lab) 14
BSCI414Recombinant DNA Laboratory3
BSCI415Molecular Genetics Laboratory3
BSCI416Human Genetics3
BCHM465Biochemistry III3
Additional CEBG Courses
BSCI223General Microbiology 24
BSCI283Principles of Microbiology 24
BSCI374Mathematical Modeling in Biology 34
BSCI425Advanced Cell Biology Lab Practices2
BSCI427Principles of Microscopy2
BSCI437General Virology3
BCHM464Biochemistry Laboratory3
BIOM301Introduction to Biometrics 43
STAT400Applied Probability and Statistics I 43
STAT464Introduction to Biostatistics 43
Special Topics Courses
BSCI328Special Topics in Entomology1-4
BSCI338Special Topics in Biology1-4
BSCI339Selected Topics in Biology1-4
BSCI348Special Topics in Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics1-4
Departmental Honors Seminar
BSCI378HCell Biology and Molecular Genetics Department Honors Seminar1
BSCI398HBiology Department Honors Seminar1
Enrichment3
Minimum 3 credits from any 300-level or 400-level BSCI, CHEM, or BCHM course.
1

BSCI223/283 is a pre-requisite for these upper level courses.

2

Credit will be given for either BSCI223 OR BSCI283. Credit cannot be granted for both courses. BSCI223/283 may count in the CEBG Area credits but NOT as an upper level lab.

3

Formerly BSCI474, cross-listed as HLSC374. Credit will be given for either BSCI374, HLSC374 or BSCI474.

4

Only one of these statistics courses will count for the CEBG Area courses.

Ecology & Evolution  0404B

Course Title Credits
Required Courses10
BSCI361Principles of Ecology4
BSCI370Principles of Evolution3
Select one of the following Statistics Courses:3
BIOM301Introduction to Biometrics3
STAT400Applied Probability and Statistics I3
STAT464Introduction to Biostatistics3
Ecology and Evolution Area Courses. 14
300-Level Courses
BSCI330Cell Biology and Physiology (Lab)4
BSCI333Principles of Paleontology (Lab)4
BSCI334Mammalogy3
BSCI335Mammalogy Laboratory1
BSCI337Biology of Insects (Lab)4
BSCI360Principles of Animal Behavior3
BSCI363The Biology of Conservation and Extinction3
BSCI364Conservation Biology Lab1
BSCI373Natural History of the Chesapeake Bay3
BSCI374Mathematical Modeling in Biology (Lab) 14
BSCI392Biology of Extinct Animals3
BSCI393Biology of Extinct Animals Laboratory1
400-Level Courses. At least two 400-level courses must be taken.
BSCI401Animal Communication3
BSCI403Biology of Vision3
BSCI405Population and Evolutionary Genetics (Lab)3
BSCI407Behavioral Genetics3
BSCI410Molecular Genetics3
BSCI430Developmental Biology3
BSCI460Plant Ecology 23
BSCI462Population Ecology3
BSCI464Microbial Ecology3
BSCI465Behavioral Ecology3
BSCI467Freshwater Biology (Lab)4
BSCI471Molecular Evolution3
BSCI473Marine Ecology3
BSCI475Sexual Selection in Nature3
BSCI480Arthropod Form and Function (Lab)4
BSCI481Insect Diversity and Classification (Lab)4
BSCI483Insects, Pathogens, and Public Health3
BSCI494Animal-Plant Interactions3
Special Topics Courses
BSCI328Special Topics in Entomology1-4
BSCI338Special Topics in Biology1-4
BSCI339Selected Topics in Biology1-4
BSCI348Special Topics in Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics1-4
Department Honors Seminar
BSCI378HCell Biology and Molecular Genetics Department Honors Seminar1
BSCI398HBiology Department Honors Seminar1
Enrichment3
Minimum 3 credits from any 300-level or 400-level BSCI, CHEM, or BCHM course.
1

Formerly BSCI474, cross-listed as HLSC374. Credit will be given for either BSCI374, HLSC374 or BSCI474.

2

BSCI460 and BSCI461 count as one required 400-level course. They do not satisfy the two 400-level courses requirement alone. 

General Biology  0404C

Course Title Credits
Required Courses
Biochemistry3
BCHM461Biochemistry I3
or BCHM463 Biochemistry of Physiology
Select one of the following Quantitative Courses:3-4
BIOM301Introduction to Biometrics3
BSCI374Mathematical Modeling in Biology (Lab) 14
STAT400Applied Probability and Statistics I3
STAT464Introduction to Biostatistics3
MATH240Introduction to Linear Algebra4
General Biology Area Courses. At least one course from each area: Genetics & Evolution, Cell Biology, Development, & Physiology, and Ecology, Behavior, & Organismal.20-21
Genetics and Evolution
BCHM465Biochemistry III3
BSCI370Principles of Evolution3
BSCI402Genomics of Sensory Systems3
BSCI405Population and Evolutionary Genetics (Lab)3
BSCI407Behavioral Genetics3
BSCI410Molecular Genetics3
BSCI411Bioinformatics and Integrated Genomics (Lab)4
BSCI412Microbial Genetics (Lab)4
BSCI414Recombinant DNA Laboratory3
BSCI415Molecular Genetics Laboratory3
BSCI416Human Genetics3
BSCI471Molecular Evolution3
Cell Biology, Development, and Physiology
BCHM462Biochemistry II3
BCHM464Biochemistry Laboratory3
BSCI330Cell Biology and Physiology (Lab)4
BSCI342Biology of Reproduction3
BSCI348Special Topics in Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics (BSCI348C: Cell Biology Lab)1-4
BSCI353Principles of Neuroscience3
BSCI404Cell Biology from a Biophysical Perspective3
BSCI406Membranes and Biological Interfaces3
BSCI417Microbial Pathogenesis3
BSCI420Cell Biology Lectures3
BSCI422Principles of Immunology3
BSCI423Immunology Laboratory (Lab)2
BSCI424Pathogenic Microbiology (Lab)4
BSCI425Advanced Cell Biology Lab Practices (Lab)2
BSCI413Recombinant DNA3
BSCI430Developmental Biology3
BSCI432Systems View of Cell Biology3
BSCI433Biology of Cancer3
BSCI437General Virology3
BSCI442Plant Physiology (Lab)4
BSCI443Microbial Physiology3
BSCI446Neural Systems3
BSCI447General Endocrinology3
BSCI450Mammalian Systems Physiology3
BSCI451Mammalian Systems Physiology Laboratory2
BSCI452Diseases of the Nervous System3
BSCI454Neurobiology Laboratory (Lab)1
Ecology, Behavior, and Organismal
BSCI333Principles of Paleontology (Lab)4
BSCI334Mammalogy3
BSCI335Mammalogy Laboratory1
BSCI337Biology of Insects (Lab)4
BSCI360Principles of Animal Behavior3
BSCI361Principles of Ecology4
BSCI363The Biology of Conservation and Extinction3
BSCI364Conservation Biology Lab (Lab)1
BSCI373Natural History of the Chesapeake Bay3
BSCI392Biology of Extinct Animals3
BSCI393Biology of Extinct Animals Laboratory (Lab)1
BSCI401Animal Communication3
BSCI403Biology of Vision3
BSCI460Plant Ecology3
BSCI462Population Ecology3
BSCI464Microbial Ecology3
BSCI465Behavioral Ecology3
BSCI467Freshwater Biology (Lab)4
BSCI473Marine Ecology3
BSCI480Arthropod Form and Function (Lab)4
BSCI481Insect Diversity and Classification (Lab)4
BSCI483Insects, Pathogens, and Public Health3
BSCI494Animal-Plant Interactions3
Additional Courses (Optional)
BSCI223General Microbiology 24
or BSCI283 Principles of Microbiology
Departmental Honors Seminars
BSCI378HCell Biology and Molecular Genetics Department Honors Seminar1
BSCI398HBiology Department Honors Seminar1
Special Topics Courses
BSCI328Special Topics in Entomology1-4
BSCI338Special Topics in Biology1-4
BSCI339Selected Topics in Biology1-4
BSCI348Special Topics in Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics1-4
Department Research Credit
BSCI379Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics Department Research1-3
BSCI389Entomology Department Research1-2
BSCI399Biology Department Research1-3
1

Formerly BSCI474, cross-listed as HLSC374. Credit will be given for either BSCI374, HLSC374 or BSCI474. 

2

Credit will be given for either BSCI223 OR BSCI283. BSCI223/283 is a pre-requisite for some upper level BSCI courses. BSCI223/283 may count in the GENB Area credits but NOT as an upper-level lab

Microbiology  0404D

Course Title Credits
Required Courses
BSCI283Principles of Microbiology 14
BSCI412Microbial Genetics (Lab)4
BSCI443Microbial Physiology3
Biochemistry Courses6
BCHM461
BCHM462
Biochemistry I
and Biochemistry II
6
Or
BCHM463
BCHM465
Biochemistry of Physiology
and Biochemistry III
6
Microbiology Area Courses7
BSCI411Bioinformatics and Integrated Genomics (Lab)4
BSCI417Microbial Pathogenesis3
BSCI422Principles of Immunology3
BSCI423Immunology Laboratory2
BSCI424Pathogenic Microbiology (Lab)4
BSCI437General Virology3
BSCI464Microbial Ecology3
Special Topics Courses
BSCI338Special Topics in Biology1-4
BSCI339Selected Topics in Biology1-4
BSCI348Special Topics in Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics1-4
Departmental Honors Seminars
BSCI378HCell Biology and Molecular Genetics Department Honors Seminar1
BSCI398HBiology Department Honors Seminar1
Enrichment3
Minimum 3 credits from any 300- or 400-level BSCI, CHEM, or BCHM course.
1

or BSCI223 with permission of Undergraduate Program Director. Students cannot get credit for both BSCI223 and BSCI283.

Physiology & Neurobiology 0404E

Course Title Credits
Required Courses13
BCHM461Biochemistry I3
or BCHM463 Biochemistry of Physiology
BSCI330Cell Biology and Physiology (Lab)4
BSCI353Principles of Neuroscience 13
BSCI450Mammalian Systems Physiology3
Physiology and Neurobiology area courses 11
BCHM462Biochemistry II3
BCHM464Biochemistry Laboratory3
BCHM465Biochemistry III3
BSCI360Principles of Animal Behavior3
BSCI370Principles of Evolution3
BSCI374Mathematical Modeling in Biology (Lab) 24
BSCI401Animal Communication3
BSCI402Genomics of Sensory Systems3
BSCI403Biology of Vision3
BSCI407Behavioral Genetics3
BSCI410Molecular Genetics3
BSCI414Recombinant DNA Laboratory3
BSCI416Human Genetics3
BSCI420Cell Biology Lectures3
BSCI422Principles of Immunology3
BSCI425Advanced Cell Biology Lab Practices2
BSCI423Immunology Laboratory2
BSCI430Developmental Biology3
BSCI433Biology of Cancer3
BSCI442Plant Physiology (Lab)4
BSCI443Microbial Physiology3
BSCI446Neural Systems3
BSCI447General Endocrinology3
BSCI451Mammalian Systems Physiology Laboratory2
BSCI452Diseases of the Nervous System3
BSCI454Neurobiology Laboratory1
Statistics, one course maximum
BIOM301Introduction to Biometrics3
STAT400Applied Probability and Statistics I3
STAT464Introduction to Biostatistics3
Special Topics Courses
BSCI328Special Topics in Entomology1-4
BSCI338Special Topics in Biology1-4
BSCI339Selected Topics in Biology1-4
BSCI348Special Topics in Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics1-4
Departmental Honors Seminars
BSCI378HCell Biology and Molecular Genetics Department Honors Seminar1
BSCI398HBiology Department Honors Seminar1
Enrichment3
Minimum 3 credits from any 300- or 400-level BSCI, CHEM, or BCHM course.
1

Starting Fall 2012, only BSCI353 satisfies the Neurobiology course requirement that was previously fulfilled by BSCI446 or BSCI453.

2

Formerly BSCI474, cross-listed as HLSC374. Credit will be given for either BSCI374, HLSC374 or BSCI474.

Individualized Studies  0404

The Individualized Studies specialization (BIVS) requires permission of the Assistant Dean of Undergraduate Academic Programs, and involves an approved proposal to do coursework in the College and in other disciplines. 

Required Courses

  • Six credits in biochemistry and/or quantitative coursework, approved by advisor

Individualized Studies Area Courses

  • 21 credits approved by advisor
  • Maximum of 4 credits at the 200-level
  • At least 3 credits, but a maximum of 6 credits, from courses outside of CMNS, cannot double count as Advanced Program
  • Courses taken to satisfy Advanced Program must support BIVS topic
  • At least two upper-level labs
  • Lab courses offered as separate credit must be successfully completed with lecture as co- or pre-requisite
  • Must include two credits for independent research paper related to BIVS topic, written under the direction of advisor

Other Requirements for the Biological Sciences Major

Students receiving a degree in the Biological Sciences from the University of Maryland must earn at least 120 credits with a cumulative minimum GPA of 2.000 in all courses being counted toward the degree as well as in all courses associated with the major. Additionally, all Biological Sciences major courses must have a grade of "C-" or better.

Internships

See cmns.umd.edu/undergraduate/research-internships.

Honors Program

Outstanding students are encouraged to apply to departmental Honors Programs. Through the Honors Programs students will become actively involved in the ongoing scientific research at the university. Information about these honors programs may be obtained from the Undergraduate Academic Programs Office, 1322 Symons Hall, 301-405-6892.

Student Societies and Professional Organizations

Information on Biological Sciences and other CMNS student organizations can be found at cmns.umd.edu/sab.

Academic Programs and Departmental Facilities

In addition to offering high quality undergraduate specializations in the Biological Sciences, the BSCI program participates in the collaborative program in secondary teaching, Terrapin Teachers, terrapinteachers.umd.edu. This program allows students to develop their expertise at communicating science to diverse audiences and provides a path toward certification to teach secondary school science or math.

Click here for roadmaps for four-year plans in the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences.

Additional information on developing a four-year academic plan can be found on the following pages: